Bariatrics

Metabolic Surgery can increase life Expectancy in patients with Diabetes and obesity!

July 05, 2021

The rising prevalence of obesity and overweight exerts a major public-health toll worldwide, contributing to 5 million deaths and 160 million disability-adjusted life-years in 2019.


Metabolic Surgery can increase life Expectancy in patients with Diabetes and obesity!

The rising prevalence of obesity and overweight exerts a major public-health toll worldwide, contributing to 5 million deaths and 160 million disability-adjusted life-years in 2019. High body-mass index—or more precisely, visceral adiposity—is a component of the constellation of cardiovascular risk factors that comprise the metabolic syndrome, and has strong epidemiological associations with diabetes, coronary heart disease, hypertension, certain cancers, and premature death. Consequently, clinical practice guidelines in endocrinology and cardiology emphasize weight control and weight loss interventions—through behavioral and lifestyle modification, pharmacotherapy, and metabolic–bariatric surgery—as a cornerstone of lowering macrovascular disease risk.

 Several medium-term to long-term observational studies and randomized controlled trials have reported that in addition to inducing substantial and durable weight loss, metabolic–bariatric surgery facilitates improvement or remission of metabolic complications including type 2 diabetes, dyslipidaemia, and obstructive sleep apnoea in individuals with obesity, which is the basis for recent and ongoing expansion in the eligibility criteria for weight-loss surgery and the reason why such procedures have been termed metabolic–bariatric surgery. Hitherto, data concerning the long-term health effects of metabolic–bariatric surgery are largely limited to evidence from observational cohort studies rather than randomized controlled trials with long-term follow-up.

Recently, a major study was to obtain more robust and accurate estimates regarding the long-term effect of metabolic–bariatric surgery on all-cause mortality and life expectancy, which are vital to guide policy and facilitate patient counselling.

In this meta-analysis of 174 772 individuals with 1·2 million person-years of follow-up, metabolic– bariatric surgery was associated with approximately half the rate of death from any cause compared to usual care in the overall population, with more marked benefits among patients with pre-existing diabetes compared to individuals who did not have diabetes at baseline. This represents an important contribution regarding the potential public health and long-term effect of this underused weight-loss modality.

Gastric bypass, banding, and sleeve gastrectomy were associated with 50–57% lower rates of all-cause mortality compared with matched adults with obesity in the non-surgical group.

The observation that patients with diabetes benefit more from metabolic– bariatric surgery correlates with findings from the SOS study, which has previously shown that raised baseline glucose and insulin concentrations were predictive of favorable treatment effects. This finding is important, with implications for future planning, development of clinical algorithms, and prioritization of patients for metabolic–bariatric surgery. Furthermore, median life expectancy projected in the recent study was 6·1 years longer for the metabolic–bariatric surgery group than for the control group.

Life expectancy can increase further if the BMI is higher and patients are able to lose more weight. In other words, patients with higher BMI can have up to 10-15 years longer life expectancy after undergoing metabolic surgery. This combined with newer available drugs in the treatment of diabetes and obesity can improve and eradicate co-morbidities and provide better quality of life for people suffering from diabetes and obesity.

Numerous studies have also suggested that gastrointestinal operations can exert weight-independent effects on diabetes and, therefore, it might be interesting to speculate whether some of the beneficial effects of metabolic–bariatric surgery on longterm survival could also be weight-independent.

 In conclusion, metabolic–bariatric surgery is associated with substantially lower all-cause mortality rates and longer life expectancy among adults with severe obesity. Substantially greater survival benefits are seen among people with pre-existing diabetes. As such, clinicians and policymakers should not hesitate to consider metabolic– bariatric surgery in the management of patients with obesity and type 2 diabetes

Doctors

Dr. Jaideep Raj Rao
Gastroenterology
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